2. Labour Act No. 13 of 2003, which establishes other minimum labour rights by law; and after the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles contained the first constitution of a new International Labour Organization (ILO), based on the principle that “labour is not a commodity” and for the reason that “peace can only be established if it is based on social justice”.  The MAIN TASK OF THE ILO was to coordinate international labour law through the adoption of Conventions. ILO members may voluntarily adopt and ratify Conventions. For example, the first Working Time (Industry) Convention of 1919 required a maximum of 48 hours per week and was ratified by 52 of the 185 Member States. The UK ultimately refused to ratify the Convention, as many current EU members have done, despite the fact that the Working Time Directive adopts its principles, subject to individual derogation. [c] The ILO Constitution dates back to the 1944 Declaration of Philadelphia and classified eight Conventions[d] as essential in the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Before the Industrial Revolution, the working day varied between 11 and 14 hours. With the growth of industrialism and the introduction of machines, longer working hours became much more common, reaching up to 16 hours a day.
The beginnings of halakhic labor law are found in the Bible, in which two commandments refer to this subject: The Law Against Late Wages (Lv 19:13; Deuteronomy 24:14-15) and the worker`s right to eat the employer`s harvest (Deuteronomy 23:25-26). Talmudic law – which refers to labor law as “laws of employee recruitment” – addresses many other aspects of labor relations, primarily in the treatise Baba Metzi`a. On some issues, the Talamud, which follows the Tosefta, refers the parties to customary law: “Everything is like the custom of the [postulated] region.” Modern halakhic labour law has developed very slowly. Rabbi Israel Meir Hacohen (the Hafetz Hayim) interprets the worker`s right to timely wages in a trend that clearly favors the employee over the employer, but does not refer to new labour relations issues. It was not until the 1920s that we found the first halachic authority to deal with the issues of trade unions (which could easily be enshrined in Talmudic law) and the right to strike (which is quite problematic in terms of Talmudic law). Rabbis A.I. Kook and B.M.H. Uziel are inclined to the corporatist settlement of labor disputes, while Rabbi Moshe Feinstein clearly adopts the liberal model of democratic collective bargaining.
Since the 1940s, halakhic literature on labour law has been enriched by books and articles that addressed a growing range of issues and essentially adopted the liberal-democratic approach. While the first strategic objective is to create income and employment opportunities, it also addresses the quality of work. As indicated in the ILO report above (1999), the quality of employment has several dimensions. These include workers` remuneration, i.e. wages, hours of work, job stability and fundamental rights in the workplace, as set out in the ILO`s core Conventions. All of these facets of job quality affect an employee`s well-being. However, in the absence of a tailor-made instrument, workers cannot compare their working conditions with the standards set out in ILO Conventions or national labour law. Therefore, they cannot be sure of being employed in quality jobs.
An example of conditions of employment in many countries is the requirement to provide an employee with written information on how to deal with essentialia negotii (essential terms in Latin). This should allow the employee to know precisely what to expect and what is expected. It includes elements such as compensation, leave and sickness rights, dismissal in the event of dismissal and job description. On January 11, 1944, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared in his annual message to Congress what is known as the “Charter of Economic Rights.” He demanded, among other things, that all peoples be guaranteed “the right to useful and lucrative work in the industries, enterprises, farms or mines of the nation.” This speech symbolized a change in public policy that had taken place since the beginning of the Great Depression, both in the United States and in the rest of the industrialized world. By the end of the century, there was a comprehensive set of rules in England that affected all industries. A similar system (with some national differences) was introduced in other industrialized countries in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. 6.3 What protection do employees have against dismissal? Under what circumstances is an employee treated as dismissed? Is third party consent required before an employer can terminate? The Decent Work Check uses a dual comparison system.
It first compares national laws with international labour standards and evaluates national regulations (w. . . .